The LDS Word of Wisdom and Animals

Introduction

If now thou hast understanding, hear this:
hearken unto the voice of my words. Job 34:16

Bestia spiritus, bestia spiritus.

My story begins on January second, 2004. We were downstairs eating leftovers, just my green cheeks conure, Jamie, and I. Jamie was munching on a delicious piece of pineapple cooked in brown sugar, and I was nibbling leftover pieces of ham. We finished eating, and I picked up all the plates from the table and put them in the sink. It was then I noticed that Jamie began to look weak and had a difficult time holding on to my shoulder.

I went upstairs with Jamie to show Gladys, and we decided to take her to a vet right away. We went back downstairs to my office, and Gladys held and comforted Jamie while I looked in the phone book for a vet, and began making calls.

On rare occasions, events occur in our lives that we could never have predicted, that change our lives in ways we could never have imagined, and that take us down paths from which we can never return.

On this night I was to begin such a journey, and now you will come with me as we search to find the path to go from a lower to a higher consciousness. I welcome those of you who are prepared for this.

Ayn Rand in her novel “Anthem,” wrote, “The secrets of this earth are not for all men to see, but only for those who will seek them.”i

Part 1. In The Beginning

Perhaps it would be best if we take the advice of the King in Alice and Wonderland.

“Begin at the beginning,” the King said, very gravely, “ and go on till you come to the end: then stop.”ii

According to the Book of Moses, all things were created spiritually before they were created physically. God explained to Moses that this included humans, animals, fowls, fish, all other creatures, and also plants. The preexistance was, then, a blueprint for the world in which we now live. God’s plan wasn’t a haphazard one, but a carefully prepared one where God himself attended to all the details to be sure everything was right. God said, “… I, the Lord God, created all things of which I have spoken, spiritually, before they were naturally upon the face of the earth.”iii

Those of you who have received your endowments know that a large portion of the temple endowment ceremony is focused upon these creation passages elucidating the significance of God’s creations. These lengthy creation scenes in the Endowment are designed to impress upon your minds the value of each of God’s creations. In the Temple Endowment, Elohim instructs Jehovah to command each of his creations, “… to multiply in its sphere, that every form of life may fill the full measure of its creation, and have joy therein.”iv The idea that each creation should have joy in life is almost unique to Latter-day Saint doctrine.

The Doctrine and Covenants talks about the union of the spirit and the body to produce a living soul, and Moses talks about the animals’ spirits being united with their bodies to form a living soul.v Joseph Fielding Smith elaborated upon the existential implications of this doctrine when he said that “Naturally, then, there is some measure of intelligence in members of the animal kingdom.”vi

Adam had a special relationship with God’s animals in that he was given the privilege to name them. After he had named them, he was given dominion over them. Now let’s be clear about this word dominion: there are some who think that the word “dominion” means “permission to exploit,” but the true meaning of the word dominion is, “the power or right of governing.” It was Adam’s responsibility to care for the garden and the animals he found there.vii As Adam was given dominion over the animal world, we must realize that, to a large extent, our own choices affect their obedience to the commandment given to multiply, replenish the earth and to fill the full measure of their creation and have joy therein.viii [Italics mine.]

After God created the Earth, and gave dominion over it to Adam, He then commanded Adam what he and the animals should eat, saying, “Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree in the which shall be the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to everything that creepeth upon the earth, wherein I grant life, there shall be given every clean herb for meat,”ix referring to grains, fruits, nuts, legumes, roots, herbs, and vegetables. Here, he declared to all living beings what they were to eat. It’s significant that he did this at the beginning of creation. God meant it to be clear exactly what each one was to eat, and it was not each other.

Part 2. Animals Are Cognizant Beings

Let me tell you a story about Alex, the famous Congo African Grey parrot who was the star of many radio, TV, and news articles over the span of his lifetime, and his trainer and owner, Dr. Irene Pepperberg.

After completing her doctorate degree, Irene decided she wanted to study animal intelligence, so she went to a pet store and let the owner of the store pick her out a bird at random, who she called Alex; short for Avian Learning Experiment. She wasn’t taken seriously by her colleagues in the world of animal intelligence research during the early years of her work with Alex, but eventually she proved that a bird with a brain the size of a shelled walnut could do things no other animal had ever done before. Irene proved that, as Animal Planet put it, African Grey parrots are the smartest animals on the planet.

In Dr. Pepperberg’s own words:

There are some things that the birds do that, colloquially speaking, “just blow us away.” We were training Alex to sound out phonemes, not because we want him to read as humans do, but we want to see if he understands that his labels are made up of sounds that can be combined in different ways to make up new words; that is, to demonstrate evidence for segmentation. He babbles at dusk, producing strings like “green, cheen, bean, keen”, so we have some evidence for this behavior, but we need more solid data.

Thus we are trying to get him to sound out refrigerator letters, the same way one would train children on phonics. We were doing demos at the Media Lab for our corporate sponsors; we had a very small amount of time scheduled and the visitors wanted to see Alex work. So we put a number of differently colored letters on the tray that we use, put the tray in front of Alex, and asked, “Alex, what sound is blue?” He answers, “Ssss.” It was an “s”, so we say “Good birdie” and he replies, “Want a nut.”

Well, I don’t want him sitting there using our limited amount of time to eat a nut, so I tell him to wait, and I ask, “What sound is green?” Alex answers, “Ssshh.” He’s right, it’s “sh,” and we go through the routine again: “Good parrot.” “Want a nut.” “Alex, wait. What sound is orange?” “ch.” “Good bird!” “Want a nut.” We’re going on and on and Alex is clearly getting more and more frustrated. He finally gets very slitty-eyed and he looks at me and states, “Want a nut. Nnn, uh, tuh.”

Not only could you imagine him thinking, “Hey, stupid, do I have to spell it for you?” but the point was that he had leaped over where we were and had begun sounding out the letters of the words for us. This was in a sense his way of saying to us, “I know where you’re headed! Let’s get on with it,” which gave us the feeling that we were on the right track with what we were doing. These kinds of things don’t happen in the lab on a daily basis, but when they do, they make you realize there’s a lot more going on inside these little walnut-sized brains than you might at first imagine.

Part 3. The Great Chain of Being

Socrates, who was born around 469 B.C. was a Classical Greek Athenian philosopher, and was credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. Most of what we know about him comes from one of his students, Plato. Plato, another Classical Greek philosopher, was born some 40 years after Socrates, and was one of Socrates’ principal students.x Socrates stressed that “virtue was the most valuable of all possessions; the ideal life was spent in search of the Good.”xi

This “search of the Good” was amplified by Plato into a philosophy that Arthur O. Lovejoy named “the principle of plenitude,”xii which is, stating it simply, the idea that the universe is a place in which the conceivable diversity of things is so exhaustively exemplified, that that every possible form of living thing has been already been created. A God, unsupplemented by nature in all its diversity would not be good, and therefore, would not be divine. This idea taken in reverse, and assuming that God is good and perfect, says that if anything were capable if existing, He would have created it. Therefore, nature is complete and full.

Aristotle, a Greek philosopher born about 40 years later,xiii and a student of Plato, could not see in nature and existence an explanation of why so many things existed, and why they diverged so greatly from perfection. He was unable to provide a basis for the principle of plenitude, and rejected it. In his system, he saw another concept, the “principle of continuity,” which later would be destined to fuse with the principle of plenitude to produce the idea that nature contains all things, and that all things in nature are connected. Aristotle began to classify things, and he believed that for all things, there was a middle thing, and that this led to a place where the differences were so small as to produce a nearly complete continuum of all things from small to great.

From the principle of plenitude and the principle of continuity, ancient thinkers came up with the idea of grading all animals in a scala naturae according to their degree of “perfection.” Thus was born the concept of the “Great Chain of Being,”xiv which classified all living things from the greatest to the least, beginning with God and the angels, then man, the animals, plants and finally the mineral world. Even after Darwin published “The Origin of Species,” even though Darwin didn’t say it, anthropological others had no problem adapting the Great Chain of Being to Darwin’s new theory of evolution.

This was this neoplatonic philosophy which was later to play a great part in the development of Christian theology that taught that animals “are for the use of man,” and justified Christians in killing and eating animals. Indeed, Christian religion was quick to apostatize from those early and fundamental beliefs in the worth of animal souls. Even the practice of vivisection (disecting live animals) which was started by the philosopher René Descartes is still practiced in some laboratories today. The belief that animals did not have souls persisted from before the birth of Christianity until the resoration of the gospel by the Prophet Joseph Smith. Almost all Christians and indeed, all educated men, believed in these teachings, and many still do.

Part 4. The Word of Wisdom

On February 27, 1833, at Kirtland, Ohio, Joseph Smith the Prophet received a revelation which we know today as the Word of Wisdom. It was given to “the weakest of all saints, who are or can be called saints.” It outlines a health code that, in part, uniquely defines the Latter-day Saints even today. Church leaders interpret the first part as stating that we should not drink alcoholic beverages, coffee, or tea; that we should not use tobacco; and that we should eat “every herb in the season thereof, and every fruit in the season thereof,”xv referring to grains, fruits, nuts, legumes, roots, herbs, and vegetables; everything humans need to be strong and healthy. Do you see that this last part is the same commandment given to Adam in the Garden of Eden?

The revelation also repeated the commandment given to Noah after the flood, saying that the flesh of beasts was to be used “sparingly.” By “sparingly,” God means that the lives of the animals should be spared, unless needed for food in times of famine, and God wanted the Saints to be quite clear about His meaning, so he added, “and it is pleasing unto me that they should not be used, only in times of winter, or of cold, or famine.” It means that the Saints are commanded not to eat meat at all if there is other plant based food to eat.

God did not create the animals to be used as food, but men have lusted after meat from the beginning of time. A second “experiment in vegetarianism” is suggested in the Book of Numbers, when the Hebrews lament once again, “O that we had meat to eat.”xvi God repeated the miracle of the quails, but this time with a vengeance: “And while the flesh was between their teeth, before it was even chewed, the wrath of the Lord was kindled against the people, and He struck them down with a great plague.”xvii The site where the deaths took place was named “The Graves of Lust.”xviii The quail meat was called “basar ta’avah,” or “meat of lust.”xix

Concerning the Word of Wisdom, Lorenzo Snow “was convinced that the killing of animals when unnecessary was wrong and sinful.”xx Joseph Fielding Smith stated that permission to use animals for meat was first given in Genesis, after the landing of the ark.xxi Even then, the Lord only gave permission to eat meat “to save your lives.”xxii Thus, the Lord reluctantly allowed His creatures to become innocent victims of human tyranny and brutality. It would be erroneous, however, to assume God became indifferent to the plight of the animals, or that humans have no moral obligation towards them.

One internet poster, referring to those scriptures wrote,

“The verses blatantly state that we will be held accountable for the blood that we shed. Whether an animal is killed directly by you, or you pay to have someone else do that which you cannot do, blood that is shed is your choice. A choice that you make whether or not you recognize it while walking down the sterile grocery store isle to pick up a neatly plastic and Styrofoam wrapped package of 95% lean ground beef.”xxiii

Apostle George Teasdale taught the same thing, and held that eating pork was a more serious breach of the Word of Wisdom than drinking tea or coffee.xxiv

Shaun Monson observed that,

“… there are religions more concerned with human spirits than with animal spirits, but we all came from the same universal dust. All life has [spirits]. All life is conscious life. There is no separation. The earth grows everything for humankind, so those who are pleased to live at peace with the animals want nothing, while carnivorous humans, deaf to the cries of Mother Earth, whet their knife against her children. But if God dwells within all creatures, humankind should therefore treat them all with love and kindness. ‘Mercy to beasts,’ writes Tristram Stuart, ‘is one of God’s first and most fundamental laws from which European and American Christians have long since apostatized, this living by killing and eating, to make oneself a grave to other creatures.'”xxv

Isaiah puts it this way, “To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto Me? Saith the Lord: I am full of the burnt offerings of rams, and the fat of fed beasts, and I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he-goats. When ye spread forth your hands, I will hide Mine eyes from you; yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear, for your hands are full of blood.”xxvi Hosea adds, “As for sacrificial gifts, they sacrifice flesh and eat it. But in these the Lord has no delight.”xxvii Hosea is saying that the purpose of the sacrifice was not to honor the Lord, but to justify the killing of animals so that they could be eaten.

Part 5. The Holocaust

Nobel prize winner, Isaac Bashevis Singer wrote in his best selling novel, “Enemies, A Love Story”, the following:

“As often as Herman had witnessed the slaughter of animals and fish, he always had the same thought: In their behavior towards creatures, all men were Nazis. The smugness with which man could do with other species as he pleased exemplify the most extreme racist theories, the principle that might is right.”

The comparison here to the holocaust is both intentional and obvious. One group of beings anguishes beneath the hands of another. Though some will argue the suffering of animals cannot compare with the suffering of former Jews or slaves, there is, in fact, a parallel. For the prisoners and victims of this mass murder, the holocaust is far from over.xxviii

After the war, the people of Germany were asked, “Why did you not stand up and speak out against the holocaust of the Jews?” Their answer? “I didn’t know.”

In the movie, Judgement at Nurenberg, the character of Ernst Janning, who was probably based on the German Judge Franz Schlegelberger who was the real judge in the Judgement Trials, makes a speech in which he says,

“My counsel would have you believe we were not aware of the concentration camps. Not aware? Where were we? Where were we when Hitler began shrieking his hate in the Reichstag? Where were we when our neighbors were being dragged out in the middle of the night to Dachau? Where were we when every village in Germany has a railroad terminal where cattle cars were filled with children being carried out to their extermination? Where were we when they cried out in the night to us? Deaf, dumb, blind.

“My counsel says we were not aware of the extermination of the millions. He would give you the excuse: We were only aware of the extermination of the hundreds. Does that make us any the less guilty? Maybe we didn’t know the details. But if we didn’t know, it was because we didn’t want to know.” [Italics mine.]

In a statement that was quoted again by two other prophets, President Joseph F. Smith said, “We are a part of life and should study carefully our relationship to it. We should be in sympathy with it, and not allow our prejudices to create a desire for its destruction. The unnecessary destruction of life begets a spirit of destruction which grows within the soul. It lives by what it feeds upon and robs man of the love that he should have for the works of God. It hardens the heart of man… The unnecessary destruction of life is a distinct spiritual loss to the human family. Men cannot worship the Creator and look with careless indifference upon his creation. The love of all life helps man to the enjoyment of a better life. … Love of nature is akin to the love of God; the two are inseparable.”xxix

James Cameron based his record breaking movie, Avatar, on the idea that all life is connected.xxx All the vegetation of the moon Pandora was connected by their root systems, like a giant computer network, and the people, the Na’ví, were connected to the network through their relationship to the “Tree of Life,” a reference too obvious to need explaining. That idea isn’t just science fiction. Scientists have discovered that in a forest or jungle on Earth, the plant life is also interconnected throughout the jungle by its root systems. We, too, are connected to the forests and jungles of the Earth because they bring us life.

This is the same idea that Joseph F. Smith voiced so long ago, but yet James Cameron was able to present with beautiful visual images that have moved many people to begin seeking enlightenment through an understanding of the network of life. While the Vatican newspaper and radio station are criticizing the film Avatar for “flirting with modern doctrines that promote the worship of nature as a substitute for religion,”xxxi Latter-day Saints recognize that the doctrine of Avatar is the same as that preached by the prophets of the Church for the last two centuries.

Part 6. Hunting Prohibited

President Joseph F. Smith also said regarding sport hunting: “I never could see why a man should be imbued with a blood-thirsty desire to kill and destroy animal life. I have known men–and they still exist among us–who enjoy what is, to them, the “sport” of hunting…I do not believe any man should kill animals or birds unless he needs them for food… I think it is wicked for men to thirst in their souls to kill almost everything which possesses animal life. It is wrong… ”xxxii

George Q. Cannon who served in the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in the late 1800’s wrote, “We should by every means in our power impress upon the rising generation the value of life and how dreadful a sin it is to take life. … The practice of hunting and killing game merely for sport should be frowned upon and not encouraged among us.” [Italics mine.] He also said that God, “does not justify men in wantonly killing those creatures which He has made and with which He has supplied the earth, ”xxxiii and he said, “These birds and animals and fish cannot speak, but they can suffer, and our God who created them knows their sufferings, and will hold him who causes them to suffer unnecessarily to answer for it. It is a sin against their Creator.” Lorenzo Snow simply put it bluntly, “Killing for sport is wrong.”xxxiv

The Talmud also forbids association with hunters.xxxv Rabbi Ezekiel Landau (1713-93) was once asked by a man if he could hunt on his large estate. The rabbi replied:

“In the Torah the sport of hunting is imputed only to fierce characters like Nimrod and Esau, never to any of the patriarchs and their descendants…I cannot comprehend how a Jew could even dream of killing animals merely for the pleasure of hunting…When the act of killing is prompted by that of sport, it is downright cruelty.”xxxvi

“Take not the life you cannot give. For all things have an equal right to live,” said Hugh Nibley, a church leader in Utah: “Man’s domination is a call to service, not a license to exterminate. It is precisely because men now prey upon each other and shed the blood and waste the flesh of other creatures without need that the world lieth in sin.”

The essence of Islamic teachings on ‘Animal Rights’ is that depriving animals of their fair share in the resources of nature is so serious a sin in the eyes of God that it is punishable by punitive retribution: The Qur’an describes how the people of Thamud demanded that the Prophet Saleh(pbuh) show them some sign to prove he was a prophet of God. (The tribe of Thamud were the descendants of Noah.)

At the time of this incident, the tribe was experiencing a dearth of food and water and was, therefore, neglecting its livestock. It was revealed to the Prophet Saleh(pbuh) to single out a she-camel as a symbol and ask his people to give her her fair share of water and fodder. The people of Thamud promised to do that, but later, killed the camel. As a retribution, the tribe was annihilated. This incident has been mentioned in the Qur’an many times in different contexts.xxxvii xxxviii

Part 7. The Ressurection

But it is Isaiah, who consistently denounces the slaughter and bloodshed of humans and animals. He declares that God does not hear the prayers of animal-killers.xxxix Repeating this again: “But your iniquities have separated you and your God. And your sins have hid His face from you, so that He does not hear. For their hands are stained with blood…their feet run to evil and they hasten to shed innocent blood…they know not the ways of peace.” Elsewhere, we read, “You have not honored Me with your sacrifices…rather you have burdened Me with your sins, you have wearied Me with your iniquities.”xl Isaiah laments that in a time of repentance he saw “joy and merrymaking, slaughtering of cattle and killing of sheep, eating of meat and drinking of wine, as you thought, ‘let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die.’ “xli

Isaiah equates the killing of animals with murder: “He that killeth an ox is as if he slew a man. He that sacrificeth a lamb is as if he cut off a dog’s neck…”xlii On two separate occasions,xliii he speaks of a future world, where “the lion shall eat straw like the ox,” and the whole earth is returned to a vegetarian paradise.xliv

“Then I will make a covenant on behalf of Israel with the wild beasts, the birds of the air, and the things that creep on the earth, and I will break the bow and sword and weapon of war and sweep them off the earth, so that all living creatures may lie down without fear.”xlv

In Doctrine and Covenants we read, “For all things shall pass away, and all things shall become new, even the heaven and the earth, and all the fullness thereof, both men and beasts, fowls of the air, and the fishes of the sea; And not one hair, neither mote, shall be lost, for it is the workmanship of mine hand.”xlvi

Bruce R. McConkie quotes Isaiah when he gives us these poetically phrased particulars about animal life during the Millennium, “The wolf and the lamb shall feed together,” he says, “and the lion shall eat straw like the bullock.” Implicit in this pronouncement is the fact that man and all forms of life will be vegetarians in the coming day; the eating of meat will cease because, for one thing, death as we know it ceases.xlvii

Part 8. The Awakening

Sadly, because Latter-day Saints are watched by the rest of humanity, we are judged by the fact that we do not keep the Word of Wisdom, which we profess to be the Word of God. One Internet poster had this to say regarding the Word of Wisdom:

“This is really strange. I have never heard of this, and I live in Utah surrounded by friends and family who are very much Mormon and not one of them is even close to being vegetarian, or even friendly to animals. Most of them are meat and potato eaters, rodeo goers, and avid AVID hunters. Most of them let their cats roam and leave their dogs tied up in their backyards all year long. Mormons are the most small minded cruel meat eating animal abusing people I have ever met.”xlviii

Another poster, Stuart, puts it in even harsher terms:

Now, if a Mormon is to say that these scriptures cannot be taken literally, why stop there?

Why not say that actually drinking alcohol and chewing tobacco is okay? Illegal drugs aren’t even mentioned in the Word of Wisdom and yet if you admit to taking any, you will be deemed as violating the Word of Wisdom and denied a temple recommend (a permit you need to enter into a Mormon temple).

Now, you can worm and wiggle as much as you want, but the context and the message is clear. Eating animals should be a sparse activity especially reserved for famine.

The irony is that in the many criticisms launched against the LDS Church doctrinally, and the many appraisals for its health code both ignore this glaring contradiction of LDS doctrine and LDS practice … .xlix

LeGrand Richards shares in his book A Marvelous Work and a Wonder a quote by William George Jordan that says, “If [one] were a lover of truth, he would be willing at any moment to surrender his belief for a higher, better, and truer faith.” Doctrine and Covenants teaches us that, “If a person gains more knowledge and intelligence in this life through his diligence and obedience than another, he will have so much the advantage in the world to come.l

Part 9. God’s Promise

There are many critics of a vegetarian diet, like the one God commanded us to eat, but God made this promise to those who live this law: “and all saints who remember to keep and do these sayings, walking in obedience to the commandments, shall receive health in their navel and marrow to their bones; and shall find wisdom and great treasures of knowledge, even hidden treasures; and shall run and not be weary, and shall walk and not faint. And I, the Lord, give unto them a promise, that the destroying angel shall pass by them, as the children of Israel, and not slay them.” But if this promise is true, then why do so many saints suffer from degenerative diseases, heart disease, diseases of the bones, and diseases of the vital organs? Because most Latter-day saints do not keep the Word of Wisdom as it pertains to the eating of animals, and animal products are highly linked to these diseases.

Brigham Young said, “Let the people be holy, and the earth under their feet will be holy. Let the people be holy, and filled with the Spirit of God, and every animal and creeping thing will be filled with peace; the soil of the earth will bring forth in its strength, and the fruits thereof will be meat for man. The more purity that exists, the less is the strife; the more kind we are to our animals, the more will peace increase, and the savage nature of the brute creation vanish away. . . Let the whole people . . . be possessed of that spirit and here is the Millennium, and so will it spread over all the world.li

Now I testify to you that if you will keep and do these sayings which the Prophets have given from the beginning of time down to the present, and spare the lives of the animals, eating that which the Lord has given you for meat: grains, fruits, nuts, legumes, roots, herbs, and vegetables, that the day will come when the destroying angel will pass over you and spare your life as you have spared theirs. And I promise you that the Lord will give you decades more life, and you will be spared the devastating diseases of old age which are connected with the eating of animals and animal products, and the Lord will fulfill his promise to increase your wisdom, knowledge, strength and health.

But if you do not, the day will come when you will stand before the judgment bar of God, and the Lord will ask you, “Why did you not stand up and speak out against the holocaust of my animals?” And you will not be able to say, “I didn’t know.”

I testify to this in the name of Jesus Christ. Amen.

Part 10. Epilogue

Now we have come full circle, and we return to that night in January. As I called frantically, looking for a vet for Jamie, suddenly she vocalized with a loud squawk, and she was dead. Gladys handed her to me, and I took her little body in my hands, and looked into her eyes which only moments before followed my every move, but which now lay still.

Now her consciousness was gone forever, and as I held her and cried, her lifeless body slowly cooled in my hands. Finally it came time for me to say my last goodbyes, and begin that journey from whence there could be no return.

The promise of the resurrection reminds me of these words from Ray Coniff’s song, Lara’s Theme.

You’ll come to me, out of the long ago
Warm as the wind, soft as the kiss of snow
Til then my sweet, think of me now and then
Godspeed my love, til you are mine again

In her book, Alex & Me, Irene Pepperberg writes of Alex,

Alex left us as a magician might exit the stage: a blinding flash, a puff of smoke, and the weaver of wizardry is gone, leaving us awestruck at what we had seen, and wondering what other secrets remained hidden.

And so it was with Jamie.

Close

Now our journey ends, for we have found a higher consciousness where animal souls and human souls are one.

So to make the first of words the last, bestia spiritus, bestia spiritus.

 

i Anthem, by Ayn Rand, first published in 1937 in England, and republished in 2008 by Forgotten Books, forgottonbooks.com
ii Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll
iii Moses 3: 4-5
iv LDS Temple Endowment before and after 1990 (when the most recent revisions were made)
v Moses 4: 19
vi Joseph Fielding Smith “Man His Origin and Destiny” p. 194
vii Moses 3:19
viii Kristen Kinjo-Bushman, http://www.themormonworker.org/articles/issue1/stewardship_of_the_creation.php
ix Moses 2: 28 -30
x Wikipedia, “Plato”
xi Wikipedia, “Socrates”
xii “The Great Chain of Being,” Arthur O. Lovejoy, Harvard University Press, p.52
xiii “The Great Chain of Being,” Arthur O. Lovejoy, Harvard University Press, p.55
xiv “The Great Chain of Being,” Arthur O. Lovejoy, Harvard University Press, p.59
xv Doctrine and Covenants, Section 89
xvi Numbers 11:4
xvii Numbers 11:33
xviii Numbers 11:34; Deuteronomy 12:20
xix “The Dietary Prohibitions of the Hebrews,” Jean Soler
xx Journal History, 5 May 1893, pp. 2-3
xxi Genesis 9:9-11
xxii Genesis 9:9-11
xxiii http://www.themormonworker.org/ articles/issue1/stewardship_of_the_creation.php
xxiv Thomas G. Alexander, “The Word of Wisdom: From Principle to Requirement”, Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 14:3 (1981) pp. 78–88.
xxv Shaun Monson, “Unity”
xxvi Isaiah 1:11, 15
xxvii Hosea 8:13
xxviii “Earthlings” A documentary by Shaun Monson, Narrated by Joaquin Phoenix
xxix Juvenile Instructor, April 1918, p. 182-3
xxx James Cameron, “Avatar” A movie produced by James Cameron
xxxi Pope Criticizes Avatar For Its “Worship Of Nature” , http://www.wusa9.com/news/local/story.aspx?storyid=95854&catid=175
xxxii Answers to Gospel Questions, Vol.4, p.48
xxxiii Gospel Truth, Vol. 1, p.30
xxxiv Teachings of Lorenzo Snow, p.188
xxxv Avodah Zorah 18b
xxxvi Yoraah De’ah, 2nd Series, 10
xxxvii Qur’an 7:73, 11:64, 26:155, 156; 54:27-31
xxxviii Animals in Islam I — Al-Hafiz B.A. Masri
xxxix Isaiah 1:15
xl Isaiah 43:23-24
xli Isaiah 22:13
xlii Isaiah 66:3
xliii Isaiah 11:6-9, 65:25
xliv Vasu Murti
xlv Hosea 2:18
xlvi D&C 29:24-25
xlvii Bruce R. McConkie, The Millennial Messiah, p. 658
xlviii Posted by: kali | July 25, 2008 06:57 PM, http://blog.peta.org/archives/2008/07/meat_stands_for_1.php
xlix Stewart N. Thorpe, Citizen Press Revolution , http://www.progressiveu.org/190654-mitt-romney-mormonism-money-and-meat-flip-flopping-on-the-word-of-wisdom
l Doctrine and Covenants | Section 130:19-21
li Brigham Young, Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Brigham Young, p. 333

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